New Book: Challenging Concepts in Neurosurgery: Cases with Expert Commentary

Challenging Concepts in Neurosurgery: Cases with Expert Commentary

Challenging Concepts in Neurosurgery: Cases with Expert Commentary

 

List Price: $89.95

ADD TO SHOPPING CART

Part of the Challenging Concepts in series, this book is a case-based guide to challenging clinical scenarios in neurosurgery covering the major sub-speciality areas of oncology, vascular neurosurgery, brain and spine trauma, paediatrics, spinal degenerative disease, peripheral and cranial nerves, functional neurosurgery and infection. Specific cases are examined with consideration of clinical presentation, diagnostics, and surgical principles, with a summary of evidence from the neurosurgical literature highlighting areas of interest and controversy.

This book serves as a useful and engaging resource for consultants and trainees in neurosurgery as well as in the disciplines of neurology, maxillofacial surgery, spinal surgery and neuro-oncology.


Product Details

  • Published on: 2015-07-21
  • Original language: English
  • Number of items: 1
  • Dimensions: 7.40″ h x .60″ w x 9.60″ l, .84 pounds
  • Binding: Paperback
  • 320 pages

Editorial Reviews

About the Author

Robin Bhatia, Consultant Spinal Neurosurgeon, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust & Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK,Ian Sabin, Consultant Neurosurgeon, Barts and the London NHS Trust, London, UK

Robin Bhatia is a Consultant Spinal Neurosurgeon working in The Great Western Hospital and Oxford University Hospital. He started to write and edit this book when he was an ST7 neurosurgical trainee in the London Deanery. His clinical practice is now exclusively spinal surgery, but his doctorate research investigated traumatic brain injury.

Ian Sabin is a Consultant Neurosurgeon at St Barts and the Royal London NHS Trust and at The Wellington Hospital. He is Director of the London Gamma Knife Centre at St Barts Hospital and Neurosurgical Tutor to the Royal College of Surgeons of England. His clinical interests include Skull Base Surgery (Acoustic Neuromas, Pituitary Tumours, and Trigeminal Neuralgia), Neuro-Oncology, Cervical Spine Surgery and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery. He also holds a research interest in endoscopic minimally invasive neurosurgery.

Criterios para la formación y capacitación en Neurorradiología Intervencionista-Neurointervencionismo

Criterios para la formación y capacitación en Neurorradiología Intervencionista-Neurointervencionismo”, acordado por el Grupo Español de Neurorradiología Intervencionista (GENI), la Sociedad Española de Neurorradiología (SENR) y los grupos expertos en patología vascular de las Sociedades Españolas de Neurocirugía (SENEC) y Neurología (SEN)”. Bases para la obtención de una Acreditación de Centros y especialistas en Neurorradiología Intervencionista-Neurointervencionismo”.

Acta de reconocimiento y Asuncion del Plan de Formación en PDF

Update: 5 aminolevulinic acid fluorescence guided resection for low grade glioma

5 aminolevulinic acid fluorescence guided resection for low grade glioma

Few studies have investigated the use of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in low grade gliomas (LGGs).

Widhalm found that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is capable as a novel intra-operative marker to detect anaplastic foci within initially suspected low-grade gliomas independent of brainshift 1).

Case series

Valdés et al. describe their initial experience with 5 aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced PpIX fluorescence in twelve patients with presumed LGGs after receiving 20 mg/kg of ALA approximately 3 hours prior to surgery under an institutional review board-approved protocol.

Intraoperative assessments of the resulting PpIX emissions using both qualitative, visible fluorescence and quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration were obtained from tissue locations that were subsequently biopsied and evaluated histopathologically. Mixed models for random effects and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for diagnostic performance were performed on the fluorescence data relative to the gold-standard histopathology.

Five of the 12 LGGs (1 ganglioglioma, 1 oligoastrocytoma, 1 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, 1 oligodendroglioma, and 1 ependymoma) demonstrated at least 1 instance of visible fluorescence during surgery. Visible fluorescence evaluated on a specimen-by-specimen basis yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 38.0% (cutoff threshold: visible fluorescence score ≥ 1, area under the curve = 0.514). Quantitative fluorescence yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 67% (for a cutoff threshold of the concentration of PpIX [CPpIX] > 0.0056 μg/ml, area under the curve = 0.66). The authors found that 45% (9/20) of nonvisibly fluorescent tumor specimens, which would have otherwise gone undetected, accumulated diagnostically significant levels of CPpIX that were detected quantitatively.

The authors’ initial experience with ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in LGGs concurs with other literature reports that the resulting visual fluorescence has poor diagnostic accuracy. However, the authors also found that diagnostically significant levels of CPpIX do accumulate in LGGs, and the resulting fluorescence emissions are very often below the detection threshold of current visual fluorescence imaging methods. Indeed, at least in the authors’ initial experience reported here, if quantitative detection methods are deployed, the diagnostic performance of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in LGGs approaches the accuracy associated with visual fluorescence in HGGs 2).

1) Widhalm G. Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence. Clin Neuropathol. 2014 Jul-Aug;33(4):260-78. PubMed PMID: 24986206.
2) Valdés PA, Jacobs V, Harris BT, Wilson BC, Leblond F, Paulsen KD, Roberts DW. Quantitative fluorescence using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX biomarker as a surgical adjunct in low-grade glioma surgery. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jul 3:1-10. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26140489.

25 Reunión de la Sociedad de Neurocirugía de Levante

Programa PRELIMINAR de la 25 Reunión de la Sociedad de Neurocirugía de Levante.

hospitalgeneralalicante

La fecha elegida será el sábado 28 de Noviembre de este año 2015.

El lugar el Hotel Confortel 4 de Valencia, sito en la
Calle Valle de Ayora, 1
46015 Valencia
T
el. 963 99 74 00

Os adjunto el programa de sesiones teóricas, con los ponentes que habéis aceptado. Respecto al programa anterior solo hay una modificación. Deseo volver a insistir en que es una reunión de todos y para todos. Bajo el lema de “Gigantes de la Neurocirugía entre nosotros” quiero volver a invitaros a todos a participar. Si alguien desea presentar su experiencia será más que bienvenido. Todos conocemos los dramas diarios de nuestro medio y para mí es siempre motivo de admiración como un compañero en vez de dedicarse a llorar, ha sabido, con esfuerzo, sudor y empeño, sacar punta de lo poco que tiene. De ahí la talla de los gigantes entre  los que vivimos. No por lo que han logrado sino por lo que han logrado a pesar de las innumerables dificultades por las que pasamos.

Queda por concretar los cursos, que desearíamos llevar a cabo, así como las intervenciones.

Saludos,

V Vanaclocha


SALA 1 – NEUROVASCULAR
09-10.00H
Manejo MAV cerebrales gigantes. Dr. J. González Darder

10-11.00h
By-pass extra-intracraneal de bajo flujo en el tratamiento de la isquemia cerebral crónica. Dr. Fuat Arikan Abelló

11.30-12.30h
Clipaje de urgencia de los aneurismas cerebrales rotos.
Dr. V. Vanaclocha

12.30-13.30h
Experiencia en la cirugía con mapeo cerebral en paciente despierto.
Dr. R. Prat Acin

13.30-14.00 Comunicaciones libres

SALA 1 – FUNCIONAL

16-17.00h
Tratamiento neuroquirúrgico de la epilepsia. Dr. A. Gutiérrez

17-18.00h
Tratamiento neuroquirúrgico de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Dr. P. Roldán

18-19.00h Comunicaciones libres

SALA 2 – NEUROONCOLOGIA
09-10.00H
Anatomía y disección de las vías nerviosas en la cirugía de los tumores intrínsecos del SNC. Dr. P. González

10-11.00h
Anatomía de la base de cráneo. Dr. J. Abarca

11.30-12.30h
Abordajes endoscópicos a la cirugía de base de cráneo. Dr. J. A. Simal + Dr. Sendra

12.30-13.30h
Abordaje a los tumores de ínsula. Dr. Quilis

13.30-14.00 h Comunicaciones libres

SALA 2 – FUNCIONAL

16-17.00h
Tratamiento neuroquirúrgico del dolor crónico rebelde. Dr. G. García-March

17-18.00h
Radiocirugía. Experiencia desde el punto de vista del neurocirujano. Dr. A. Menéndez.

18-19.00h Comunicaciones libres

SALA 3 – NEUROPEDIATRÍA
09-10.00H
Patología del LCR en la infancia. Dr. Pablo Miranda

10-11.00h
Tratamiento quirúrgico de las craniosinostosis. Dr. J. Hinojosa Mena

11.30-12.30h
Defectos del tubo neural. Dr. A. López Guerrero

12.30-13.30h

13.30-14.00 Comunicaciones libres

SALA 3 – MISCELANEA

12.30-13.30h
Protocolo de actuación ante sospecha de Hidrocefalia crónica del adulto. Dra. L. Gozalbes Esterelles

16-17.00h
Patología de la articulación sacroilíaca y su repercusión en el paciente con dolor lumbar crónico. Dr. V. Vanaclocha

17-18.00h
Discopatía degenerativa lumbar: tratamiento mediante prótesis discal lumbar. Dr. V. Vanaclocha

18-19.00h Comunicaciones libres.

Intervenciones
MIÉRCOLES
08.00-14.00h

Quirófano 19
By-pass extra-intracraneal con medición PtiO2

Quirófano 20
Fusión craneo-cervical técnica Harms-Goel/Artrodesis odontoides vía anterior

Quirófano 6
1) Vertebroplastia con expansión del cemento mediante radiofrecuencia
2) Simpatectomía lumbar mediante radiofrecuencia
MIÉRCOLES
14.00-15.00

Quirófano 19
Descompresión endoscópica nervio cubital en codo

Quirófano 20
Cordotomía C1-C2 percutánea

Quirófano 6
Denervación cadera

JUEVES
08.00-14.00h

Quirófano 19
DREZ médula cervical/DREZ bulbo/Descompresión endoscópica V par

Quirófano 20
Reparación plexo braquial con transferencias nerviosas

Quirófano 6
1) Infiltración ganglio estrellado
2) Infiltración articulación sacroilíaca
3) Infiltración nervio pudendo

JUEVES
14.00-15.00

Quirófano 19
Descompresión nervio peroneo

Quirófano 20
Descompresión túnel tarsiano

JUEVES
15.00-18.00

Quirófano 19
Simpatectomía torácica endoscópica

Quirófano 20
Cranioplastia con cemento acrílico con molde preformado

VIERNES
08.00-14.00h

Quirófano 19
Extirpación glioma cerebral + terapia fotodinámica con Foscan

Quirófano 20
1) Prótesis discal lumbar L5-S1
2) Prótesis discal lumbar L4-L5 + L5-S1

Quirófano 6
1) Fijación dinámica con Coflex L5-S1
2) Artrodesis TLIF con Serengueti L4-L5/L5-S1
VIERNES
14.00-15.00h

Quirófano 19
Descompresión endoscópica túnel carpiano

Update: Fourth ventricle lymphoma

Fourth ventricle lymphoma

J.Sales-Llopis

Neurosurgery Department, University General Hospital of Alicante, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region (FISABIO), Alicante, Spain

primary central nervous system lymphoma should be listed in the differential diagnosis of fourth ventricle tumors with well-circumscribed margins and homogenous contrast enhancement. 1).

primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) frequency map showed that these tumors tended to occur around the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. Moreover, subtypes were classified as germinal center B (GCB) (27 cases) and non-GCB (63 cases) PCNSL frequency maps showed GCB lymphomas located at the upper tegmentum and cerebellum around the fourth ventricle, while non-GCB lymphomas tended to occupy the anterior fornix. These differences were significant and confirmed by the existence of voxels with P values <.05 (random permutation analysis with voxel-wise Fisher’ exact test). This is the very first report to address phenotypical and spatial distributional differences between GCB and non-GCB PCNSL using an MR group analytical method 2).

Treatment

Craniotomy and tumor resection, if feasible, should be the initial line of management in similar cases to relieve hydrocephalus and achieve the diagnosis 3).

Case reports

2015

A 61-year-old male presenting with 3 months of headache and dizziness followed with unsteady gait for days. The MR imaging of brain revealed a homogeneously enhancing lesion occupying almost the whole 4th ventricle.The tumor was removed subtotally via suboccipital craniotomy. Histopathology revealed the lesion be a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL) is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesion. The unusual location in surgically accessible fourth ventricle in posterior fossa, the isolation of the tumor may present a compelling indication for surgical resection.

Hsu et al. suggest that primary lymphoma should be considered with homogenous lesions of the 4th ventricle. Also aggressive surgical resection in this surgically accessible location, instead of biopsy only, is rational. 4).


A 66-year-old man with 2-month history of dizziness and 1-month history of diplopia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed two solid masses, one in the right lateral ventricle and another in the fourth ventricle. A surgical biopsy was performed on the basis of safety. The diagnosis of large B-cell lymphoma was made postoperatively. The patient recovered without additional deficits and was then commenced on chemotherapy and remained well 6 months after the diagnosis. It is an extremely rare case of primary central nervous system lymphoma with multifocal ventricular involvement. 5)


A 65-year-old man presented with a two-week history of weight loss, headaches, blurred vision, asthenia and quickly worsening walking impairment. He denied photophobia, neck stiffness, fever, nausea or vomiting.Neurological examination showed global motor slowing, tendency to fall asleep during the clinical examination, generalized weakness against resistance to head and limbs, and osteotendon reflexes present in the upper limbs, but not evoked in the lower limbs. No sensitive deficit or focal neurologic sign was recognizable.Non-contrast multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the head was performed in the emergency department, showing diffuse periventricular white matter and thalamic mild hyperdensity.Lumbar puncture, blood tests, including serology for HIV and other infections, were negative.On the third day the patient, showing decreased consciousness, underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast medium injection. MRI revealed the presence of multiple pseudonodular avidly enhancing lesions, supra and infratentorial, crossing the midline, involving the ventricular system, including the fourth ventricle, with extension into the surrounding white matter, the corpus callosum, the thalamus and the hypothamalus.A stereotactic biopsy led to a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primarily located in the central nervous system (PCNSL).After the completion of the first phase of treatment (immunotherapy with intravenous Rituximab and corticosteroid), the MRI showed a marked regression of tumor masses 6).

2014

An 18 year-old immunocompetent male presented with multiple cranial nerves palsies and was found to have a mass predominantly in the 4th ventricle of the brain. Tumor was surgically removed and showed morphological and immunohistochemical features consistent with Burkitt lymphoma. The patient responded very well to anthracycline based chemotherapy with high dose methotrexate (HD MTX) and intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy delivered by Ommaya reservoir 7).


Grossman et al. report a case of primary CNS lymphoma located in the floor of the fourth ventricle that showed intense fluorescence after preoperative administration of 5 aminolevulinic acid. The authors believe that this is the first demonstration of a 5 aminolevulinic acid fluorescence guided resection in primary CNS lymphoma 8).


A 77-year-old man had a 1 week history of intermittent vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and progressively unsteady gait. CT scans of the brain showed a fourth ventricle tumor. MRI revealed a 2.5 cm dumbbell-shaped avidly-enhancing tumor in the fourth ventricle. Metastasis or high-grade glioma was suspected. The neuropathological findings were compatible with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A slit lamp examination, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies for extracranial lesions were unremarkable 9).

Primary fourth ventricular B-cell lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient 10)

2013

Case report 11).


A 50-year-old male who developed signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Imaging revealed the presence of a fourth ventricle mass with obstructive hydrocephalus. First, the patient underwent emergency endoscopic third ventriculostomy followed, few days later, by complete tumor resection via a posterior fossa craniotomy. Postoperative histopathology revealed the lesion to be a PCNSL. He received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation and remained with no recurrence on regular imaging studies for 18-month followup 12).

2011

Multifocal lateral and fourth ventricular B-cell primary CNS lymphoma 13)

A case report 14).

2008

A 69-year-old man presenting with 6 weeks of intractable vomiting. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a homogenously enhancing mass in the caudal fourth ventricle. Surgical exploration and biopsy was performed and pathological examination demonstrated a high-grade B-cell lymphoma. The lesion was a primary tumour in an immuno-competent patient. . We suggest that primary B-cell lymphoma should be considered with homogenous lesions of the fourth ventricle. 15)


A 51-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of double vision and numbness around her left ear. She subsequently became unsteady on her feet and developed further cranial nerve abnormalities, before complaining of headache, nausea and vomiting. Imaging revealed features suggestive of two intracranial lesions; one non-contrast-enhancing high-signal area in the cerebellum with associated calcification, and a second contrast-enhancing low-signal area in association with the fourth ventricle, and at surgery there were two apparent components to the tumor. The histopathological features were those of a low-grade, focally calcified tumor comprising atypical ganglion and glial cells with interspersed Rosenthal fibres. Mitotic figures were not seen, and there was no necrosis. An infiltrate of small reactive lymphocytes was interspersed among the neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of synaptophysin by many of the dysplastic ganglion cells, with some co-expressing neurofilament protein and occasionally glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Several of the dysplastic ganglion cells also expressed CD34. The glial cell population was highlighted by GFAP. Ki-67 (MIB-1) activity was not noted among the neoplastic populations–the few positive nuclei in these areas were those of interspersed reactive CD3-positive T lymphocytes. In addition, at the edge of one of the biopsies was a dense infiltrate of mitotically-active large atypical CD 20-positive B lymphocytes, among which the Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index reached 80%. The final diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma arising within a ganglioglioma of the cerebellum, and this is believed to be the first reported case 16).

2001

A 33-year-old woman presenting with a 4-week history of vertigo and headaches. Physical examination revealed an isolated static cerebellar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a homogeneously enhancing tumor located in the fourth ventricle. Complete surgical removal was performed and microscopic examination revealed a high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Postoperative investigations confirmed it to be primary 17).

1988

A 31-year-old man had Hodgkin’s disease (stage IIA, nodular sclerosis) in apparent remission after radiotherapy. Nine months after the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease, he developed neoplastic meningitis with eosinophilic pleocytosis and neurologic findings suggestive of peri-fourth ventricle infiltration. Morphologic and surface marker analysis of cerebrospinal fluid cells showed large numbers of T-lymphocytes and Reed-Sternberg variant cells positive for CD15, the Lex hapten expressed on myeloid cells and on a variety of malignant cells. Therapy with intrathecal methotrexate, oral dexamethasone, and cranial irradiation resulted in prompt resolution of his cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities and neurologic deficits. Ten months after the diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis, systemic relapse of Hodgkin’s disease occurred in right iliac and inguinal lymph nodes 18).

1986

A case of primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system is described in which lesions seen on computed tomography scans disappeared, and clinical remissions occurred with the administration of corticosteroids. The tumor affected the region of the fourth ventricle and parietal and frontal lobes. In our patient, three remissions occurred over a span of 24 months, each in conjunction with corticosteroid administration. This supports other observations that steroids alter the natural history of primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system, leading to both radiologic and clinical remissions 19).

1981

A 43-year-old man underwent a surgical total removal of a tumor followed by radiotherapy (a total of 6,000 rad of 60Co) and chemotherapy. In the preoperative CT scan, a well-defined, nodular-shaped tumor was found in the left parietal region. This tumor disappeared when the combination treatment had been completed. Subsequently, CT scan demonstrated multifocal tumors with involvement of the roof of the fourth ventricle, frontal cortex and lateral ventricle. The patient expired 20 months after the onset of symptoms. The tumors in the frontal lobes, left thalamus and subdural space of the upper cervical cord showed dense sheets of polymorphous, large to medium-sized lymphocytes. The microscopic findings were interpreted as showing malignant lymphoma, lymphocytic, poorly differentiated, diffuse. Immunologically, E rosettes were formed by sheep red blood cells around the tumor cells. Immunofluorescence technique failed to demonstrate IgG, IgM and/or IgA in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. By scanning electron microscopy, the tumor cells were devoid of microvilli 20).

1) , 9) Liao CH, Lin SC, Hung SC, Hsu SP, Ho DM, Shih YH. Primary large B-cell lymphoma of the fourth ventricle. J Clin Neurosci. 2014 Jan;21(1):180-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2013.02.036. Epub 2013 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 24012385.
2) Kinoshita M, Sasayama T, Narita Y, Yamashita F, Kawaguchi A, Chiba Y, Kagawa N, Tanaka K, Kohmura E, Arita H, Okita Y, Ohno M, Miyakita Y, Shibui S, Hashimoto N, Yoshimine T. Different spatial distribution between germinal center B and non-germinal center B primary central nervous system lymphoma revealed by magnetic resonance group analysis. Neuro Oncol. 2014 May;16(5):728-34. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/not319. Epub 2014 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 24497406; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3984556.
3) , 12) Bokhari R, Ghanem A, Alahwal M, Baeesa S. Primary isolated lymphoma of the fourth ventricle in an immunocompetent patient. Case Rep Oncol Med. 2013;2013:614658. doi: 10.1155/2013/614658. Epub 2013 Mar 28. PubMed PMID:23607015; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3625557.
4) Hsu HI, Lai PH, Tseng HH, Hsu SS. Primary solitary lymphoma of the fourth ventricle. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2015 Jul 15;14:23-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.07.006. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26209757.
5) Zhu Y, Ye K, Zhan R, Tong Y. Multifocal lateral and fourth ventricular primary central nervous system lymphoma: case report and literature review. Turk Neurosurg. 2015;25(3):493-5. doi: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.10496-14.1. PubMed PMID: 26037194.
6) Cellina M, Fetoni V, Baron P, Orsi M, Oliva G. Unusual primary central nervous system lymphoma location involving the fourth ventricle and hypothalamus. Neuroradiol J. 2015 Apr;28(2):120-5. doi: 10.1177/1971400915576671. Epub 2015 Apr 13. PubMed PMID: 25923685.
7) Alabdulsalam A, Zaidi SZ, Tailor I, Orz Y, Al-Dandan S. Primary burkitt lymphoma of the fourth ventricle in an immunocompetent young patient. Case Rep Pathol. 2014;2014:630954. doi: 10.1155/2014/630954. Epub 2014 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 25254131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4164299.
8) Grossman R, Nossek E, Shimony N, Raz M, Ram Z. Intraoperative 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Neurosurg. 2014 Jan;120(1):67-9. doi: 10.3171/2013.9.JNS131076. Epub 2013 Oct 18. PubMed PMID: 24138204.
10) Fabiano AJ, Syriac S, Fenstermaker RA, Qiu J. Primary fourth ventricular B-cell lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient. Clin Neuropathol. 2014 Jan-Feb;33(1):94-7. doi: 10.5414/NP300658. PubMed PMID: 23924755; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4199190.
11) Rao RN, Mishra D, Agrawal P, Kumar R. Primary B-cell central nervous system lymphoma involving fourth ventricle: a rare case report with review of literature. Neurol India. 2013 Jul-Aug;61(4):450-3. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.117608. Review. PubMed PMID: 24005755.
13) Brar R, Prasad A, Sharma T, Vermani N. Multifocal lateral and fourth ventricular B-cell primary CNS lymphoma. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012 Apr;114(3):281-3. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2011.10.020. Epub 2011 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 22100106.
14) Su CH, Young YH. Disorders affecting the fourth ventricle: etiology and clinical correlates. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Oct;32(8):1329-35. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e31822e5ba7. PubMed PMID: 21897323.
15) Hill CS, Khan AF, Bloom S, McCartney S, Choi D. A rare case of vomiting: fourth ventricular B-cell lymphoma. J Neurooncol. 2009 Jun;93(2):261-2. doi: 10.1007/s11060-008-9765-4. Epub 2008 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 19093074.
16) Browning L, Leach J, Watts C, Kuker W, Stacey R. 51-year-old woman with double vision. Brain Pathol. 2008 Apr;18(2):295-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2008.00161.x. PubMed PMID: 18363942.
17) Haegelen C, Riffaud L, Bernard M, Morandi X. Primary isolated lymphoma of the fourth ventricle: case report. J Neurooncol. 2001 Jan;51(2):129-31. PubMed PMID: 11386409.
18) Mulligan MJ, Vasu R, Grossi CE, Prasthofer EF, Griffin FM Jr, Kapila A, Trupp JM, Barton JC. Neoplastic meningitis with eosinophilic pleocytosis in Hodgkin’s disease: a case with cerebellar dysfunction and a review of the literature. Am J Med Sci. 1988 Nov;296(5):322-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 3057913.
19) Todd FD 2nd, Miller CA, Yates AJ, Mervis LJ. Steroid-induced remission in primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system. Surg Neurol. 1986 Jul;26(1):79-84. PubMed PMID: 3715705.
20) Suzuki M, Sato T, Komatsu S, Kimura N, Wada T. [Malignant lymphoma of the CNS – case report with pathological and immunological studies (author’s transl)]. No Shinkei Geka. 1981 Oct;9(11):1279-84. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 7312122.

Uso de cookies

Este sitio web utiliza cookies para que usted tenga la mejor experiencia de usuario. Si continúa navegando está dando su consentimiento para la aceptación de las mencionadas cookies y la aceptación de nuestra política de cookies, pinche el enlace para mayor información.