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Journal of Neurosurgery: Octubre 2014

Featured Articles

The history of neurosurgery at the University of Rochester

Autograft-derived spinal cord mass following olfactory mucosal cell transplantation in a spinal cord injury patient

What is the risk of infecting a cerebrospinal fluid–diverting shunt with percutaneous tapping ?

Immediate complications associated with high-flow cerebrospinal fluid egress during endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery

Bradford’s law in pediatric neurosurgery

Bradford’s law describes the number of core journals in a given field or subject and has recently been applied to neurosurgery.

The objective of the Venable et al., study was to use currently accepted formulations of Bradford’s law to identify core journals of pediatric neurosurgery. An additional analysis was completed to compare regional dependence on citation density among North American and European neurosurgeons.

All original research publications from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed for the 25 top publishing pediatric neurosurgeons in North America and Europe, which were sampled to construct regional citation databases of all journal references. Regional differences were compared with each database. Egghe’s formulation and the verbal formulation of Bradford’s law were applied to create specific citation density zones and identify the core journals.

Regional comparison demonstrated a preference for the Journal of Neurosurgery and Child’s Nervous System, respectively, but four of the top five journals were common to both groups. Applying the verbal formulation of Bradford’s law to the North American citation database, a pattern of citation density was identified across the first three zones. Journals residing in the most highly cited first zone are presented as the core journals.

Bradford’s law can be applied to identify the core journals of neurosurgical subspecialties. While regional differences exist between the most highly cited and most frequently published in journals among North American and European pediatric neurosurgeons, there is commonality between the top five core journals in both groups 1).

1) Venable GT, Shepherd BA, Roberts ML, Taylor DR, Khan NR, Klimo P Jr. An application of Bradford’s law: identification of the core journals of pediatric neurosurgery and a regional comparison of citation density. Childs Nerv Syst.2014 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25098356.

Neurosurgery Junio 2014

Editors Choice

Stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy

The report of Willie, Jon T et al., demonstrates the technical feasibility and encouraging early results of stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH), a novel approach to eliminating seizures while minimizing collateral injury in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Efficacy appears to approach that of open resection, especially in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Such minimally invasive techniques may be more desirable to patients and result in increased use of epilepsy surgery among the large number of medically intractable epilepsy patients. A larger, longer term multicenter study of seizure and cognitive outcomes after SLAH is currently under way 1).

Journal of Neurosurgery March 2014

Featured Article

Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma

Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) are the most common type of pituitary adenoma and, when symptomatic, typically require surgical removal as an initial means of management.

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an alternative therapeutic strategy for patients whose comorbidities substantially increase the risks of resection. In

Lee et al, evaluated the efficacy and safety of initial GKRS for NFAs.

An international group of three academic Gamma Knife centers retrospectively reviewed outcome data in 569 patients with NFAs.

Forty-one patients (7.2%) underwent GKRS as primary management for their NFAs because of an advanced age, multiple comorbidities, or patient preference. The median age at the time of radiosurgery was 69 years. Thirty-seven percent of the patients had hypopituitarism before GKRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12 Gy (range 6.2-25.0 Gy) at a median isodose of 50%. The overall tumor control rate was 92.7%, and the actuarial tumor control rate was 94% and 85% at 5 and 10 years postradiosurgery, respectively. Three patients with tumor growth or symptom progression underwent resection at 3, 3, and 96 months after GKRS, respectively. New or worsened hypopituitarism developed in 10 patients (24%) at a median interval of 37 months after GKRS. One patient suffered new-onset cranial nerve palsy. No other radiosurgical complications were noted. Delayed hypopituitarism was observed more often in patients who had received a tumor margin dose > 18 Gy (p = 0.038) and a maximum dose > 36 Gy (p = 0.025).

GKRS resulted in long-term control of NFAs in 85% of patients at 10 years. This experience suggests that GKRS provides long-term tumor control with an acceptable risk profile. This approach may be especially valuable in older patients, those with multiple comorbidities, and those who have endocrine-inactive tumors without visual compromise due to mass effect of the adenoma ((Lee CC, Kano H, Yang HC, Xu Z, Yen CP, Chung WY, Pan DH, Lunsford LD, Sheehan JP. Initial Gamma Knife radiosurgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg. 2014 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24405068.)).


Three-dimensional motion analysis of the cervical spine for comparison of anterior cervical decompression and fusion versus artificial disc replacement in 17 patients.

Cervical arthroplasty

Cervical arthroplasty with an artificial disc (AD) has emerged as an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the management of cervical spondylosis.

It is an effective, reliable, and safe procedure for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. However, there is no definitive evidence that DCI arthroplasty has better intermediate-term results than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

3D motion analysis data comparing patients after ACDF and AD replacement in ten patients who underwent C5-6 ACDF and 7 who underwent C5-6 AD replacement were enrolled. Using biplanar fluoroscopy and a model-based track technique (accurate up to 0.6 mm and 0.6°), motion analysis of axial rotation and flexion-extension of the neck was performed. Three nonoperative segments (C3-4, C4-5, and C6-7) were assessed for both intervertebral rotation (coronal, sagittal, and axial planes) and facet shear (anteroposterior and mediolateral). Results There was no difference in total neck motion comparing ACDF and AD replacement for neck extension (43.3° ± 10.2° vs 44.3° ± 12.6°, p = 0.866) and rotation (36.0° ± 6.5° vs 38.2° ± 9.3°, p = 0.576). For extension, when measured as a percentage of total neck motion, there was a greater amount of rotation at the nonoperated segments in the ACDF group than in the AD group (p = 0.003). When comparing specific motion segments, greater normalized rotation was seen in the ACDF group at C3-4 (33.2% ± 4.9% vs 26.8% ± 6.6%, p = 0.036) and C6-7 (28.5% ± 6.7% vs 20.5% ± 5.5%, p = 0.009) but not at C4-5 (33.5% ± 6.4% vs 31.8% ± 4.0%, p = 0.562). For neck rotation, greater rotation was observed at the nonoperative segments in the ACDF group than in the AD group (p = 0.024), but the differences between individual segments did not reach significance (p ≥ 0.146). Increased mediolateral facet shear was seen on neck extension with ACDF versus AD replacement (p = 0.008). Comparing each segment, C3-4 (0.9 ± 0.5 mm vs 0.4 ± 0.1 mm, p = 0.039) and C4-5 (1.0 ± 0.4 mm vs 0.5 ± 0.2 mm, p = 0.022) showed increased shear while C6-7 (1.0 ± 0.4 mm vs 1.0 ± 0.5 mm, p = 0.767) did not.

This study illustrates increased motion at nonoperative segments in patients who have undergone ACDF compared with those who have undergone AD replacement. Further studies will be required to examine whether these changes contribute to adjacent-segment disease  (( McDonald CP, Chang V, McDonald M, Ramo N, Bey MJ, Bartol S. Three-dimensional motion analysis of the cervical spine for comparison of anterior cervical decompression and fusion versus artificial disc replacement in 17 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Dec 20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24359000.)).


The comparative effectiveness of ventricular shunt placement versus endoscopic third ventriculostomy for initial treatment of hydrocephalus in infants.

In infants with hydrocephalus, a greater 1-year CSF diversion failure rate may occur after ETV compared with shunt placement. This risk is most significant for procedures performed within the first 90 days of life. Further investigation of the need for multiple reoperations, cost, and impact of surgeon and hospital experience is necessary to distinguish which treatment is more effective in the long term ((Jernigan SC, Berry JG, Graham DA, Goumnerova L. The comparative effectiveness of ventricular shunt placement versus endoscopic third ventriculostomy for initial treatment of hydrocephalus in infants. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24404970.))

Neurosurgery March 2014

March 2014 Issue of Neurosurgery is Online

03 March 2014The March 2014 issue of Neurosurgery is now online and full-text access is available for print subscribers. Non-subscribers may access all article abstracts and the full-text of selected articles.

Read more 



Artículo especial

Tracking and Sustaining Improvement Initiatives: Leveraging Quality Dashboards to Lead Change in a Neurosurgical Department

Cada vez más, hospitales y  médicos  adquieren conocimiento de estrategias y herramientas para mejorar la calidad empresarial.

En el 2007 el departamento de Neurocirugía de la Universidad de California Los Angeles (UCLA) creó unos indicadores de calidad para ayudar a gestionar las medidas de proceso y resultados con la finalidad de mejorar el rendimiento clínico y la atención al paciente .

En el 2009 , la dirección del departamento y la dirección médica trabajó  para alinear las prioridades de mejora de calidad de inversión. El contenido se ha rediseñado para incluir 3 áreas de prioridades: calidad y seguridad,  satisfacción del paciente , eficiencia y uso de los recursos. A través del tiempo , la calidad de la neurocirugía ha sido reconocida por su claridad y su éxito en las estrategias de gestión.

Se describe la creación, el diseño y  un resumen de la evolución del proceso, e ilustra la forma en que se puede utilizar como una herramienta poderosa de mejora y cambio.

También se discuten los posibles retos y orientaciones futuras de este conjunto de estrategias y llaves enfocadas a la administración y creación de conocimiento sobre el medio, a través del análisis de los datos existentes en un servicio de neurocirugía.