Gamma Knife surgery for incidental cerebral arteriovenous malformations
Thirty-one patients, each with an incidentally diagnosed unruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformation, underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) between 1989 and 2009. The nidus volumes ranged from 0.3 to 11.1 cm(3) (median 3.2 cm(3)). A margin dose between 15 and 26 gray (Gy) (median 20 Gy) was used to treat the AVMs. Four patients underwent repeat GKS for still-patent AVM residuals after the initial GKS procedure. Clinical follow-up ranged from 24 to 196 months, with a mean of 78 months (median 51 months) after the initial GKS.
19 patients (61.3%) had a total AVM obliteration on angiography. In 7 patients (22.6%), no flow voids were observed on MRI but angiographic confirmation was not available. In 5 patients (16.1%), the AVMs remained patent. A small nidus volume was significantly associated with increased AVM obliteration rate. Thirteen patients (41.9%) developed radiation-induced imaging changes: 11 were asymptomatic (35.5%), 1 had only headache (3.2%), and 1 developed seizure and neurological deficits (3.2%). Two patients each had 1 hemorrhage during the latency period (116.5 risk years), yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 1.7% before AVM obliteration.
The decision to treat asymptomatic AVMs, and if so, which treatment approach to use, remain the subject of debate. GKS as a minimally invasive procedure appears to achieve a reasonable outcome with low procedure-related morbidity. In those patients with incidental AVMs, the benefits as well as the risks of radiosurgical intervention will only be fully defined with long-term follow-up 1).
Bradford’s law describes the number of core journals in a given field or subject and has recently been applied to neurosurgery.
The objective of the Venable et al., study was to use currently accepted formulations of Bradford’s law to identify core journals of pediatric neurosurgery. An additional analysis was completed to compare regional dependence on citation density among North American and European neurosurgeons.
All original research publications from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed for the 25 top publishing pediatric neurosurgeons in North America and Europe, which were sampled to construct regional citation databases of all journal references. Regional differences were compared with each database. Egghe’s formulation and the verbal formulation of Bradford’s law were applied to create specific citation density zones and identify the core journals.
Regional comparison demonstrated a preference for the Journal of Neurosurgery and Child’s Nervous System, respectively, but four of the top five journals were common to both groups. Applying the verbal formulation of Bradford’s law to the North American citation database, a pattern of citation density was identified across the first three zones. Journals residing in the most highly cited first zone are presented as the core journals.
Bradford’s law can be applied to identify the core journals of neurosurgical subspecialties. While regional differences exist between the most highly cited and most frequently published in journals among North American and European pediatric neurosurgeons, there is commonality between the top five core journals in both groups 1).