Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma
Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) are the most common type of pituitary adenoma and, when symptomatic, typically require surgical removal as an initial means of management.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an alternative therapeutic strategy for patients whose comorbidities substantially increase the risks of resection. In
Lee et al, evaluated the efficacy and safety of initial GKRS for NFAs.
An international group of three academic Gamma Knife centers retrospectively reviewed outcome data in 569 patients with NFAs.
Forty-one patients (7.2%) underwent GKRS as primary management for their NFAs because of an advanced age, multiple comorbidities, or patient preference. The median age at the time of radiosurgery was 69 years. Thirty-seven percent of the patients had hypopituitarism before GKRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12 Gy (range 6.2-25.0 Gy) at a median isodose of 50%. The overall tumor control rate was 92.7%, and the actuarial tumor control rate was 94% and 85% at 5 and 10 years postradiosurgery, respectively. Three patients with tumor growth or symptom progression underwent resection at 3, 3, and 96 months after GKRS, respectively. New or worsened hypopituitarism developed in 10 patients (24%) at a median interval of 37 months after GKRS. One patient suffered new-onset cranial nerve palsy. No other radiosurgical complications were noted. Delayed hypopituitarism was observed more often in patients who had received a tumor margin dose > 18 Gy (p = 0.038) and a maximum dose > 36 Gy (p = 0.025).
GKRS resulted in long-term control of NFAs in 85% of patients at 10 years. This experience suggests that GKRS provides long-term tumor control with an acceptable risk profile. This approach may be especially valuable in older patients, those with multiple comorbidities, and those who have endocrine-inactive tumors without visual compromise due to mass effect of the adenoma1.
Three-dimensional motion analysis of the cervical spine for comparison of anterior cervical decompression and fusion versus artificial disc replacement in 17 patients.
Cervical arthroplasty with an artificial disc (AD) has emerged as an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the management of cervical spondylosis.
It is an effective, reliable, and safe procedure for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. However, there is no definitive evidence that DCI arthroplasty has better intermediate-term results than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).
3D motion analysis data comparing patients after ACDF and AD replacement in ten patients who underwent C5-6 ACDF and 7 who underwent C5-6 AD replacement were enrolled. Using biplanar fluoroscopy and a model-based track technique (accurate up to 0.6 mm and 0.6°), motion analysis of axial rotation and flexion-extension of the neck was performed. Three nonoperative segments (C3-4, C4-5, and C6-7) were assessed for both intervertebral rotation (coronal, sagittal, and axial planes) and facet shear (anteroposterior and mediolateral). Results There was no difference in total neck motion comparing ACDF and AD replacement for neck extension (43.3° ± 10.2° vs 44.3° ± 12.6°, p = 0.866) and rotation (36.0° ± 6.5° vs 38.2° ± 9.3°, p = 0.576). For extension, when measured as a percentage of total neck motion, there was a greater amount of rotation at the nonoperated segments in the ACDF group than in the AD group (p = 0.003). When comparing specific motion segments, greater normalized rotation was seen in the ACDF group at C3-4 (33.2% ± 4.9% vs 26.8% ± 6.6%, p = 0.036) and C6-7 (28.5% ± 6.7% vs 20.5% ± 5.5%, p = 0.009) but not at C4-5 (33.5% ± 6.4% vs 31.8% ± 4.0%, p = 0.562). For neck rotation, greater rotation was observed at the nonoperative segments in the ACDF group than in the AD group (p = 0.024), but the differences between individual segments did not reach significance (p ≥ 0.146). Increased mediolateral facet shear was seen on neck extension with ACDF versus AD replacement (p = 0.008). Comparing each segment, C3-4 (0.9 ± 0.5 mm vs 0.4 ± 0.1 mm, p = 0.039) and C4-5 (1.0 ± 0.4 mm vs 0.5 ± 0.2 mm, p = 0.022) showed increased shear while C6-7 (1.0 ± 0.4 mm vs 1.0 ± 0.5 mm, p = 0.767) did not.
This study illustrates increased motion at nonoperative segments in patients who have undergone ACDF compared with those who have undergone AD replacement. Further studies will be required to examine whether these changes contribute to adjacent-segment disease 2.
The comparative effectiveness of ventricular shunt placement versus endoscopic third ventriculostomy for initial treatment of hydrocephalus in infants.
In infants with hydrocephalus, a greater 1-year CSF diversion failure rate may occur after ETV compared with shunt placement. This risk is most significant for procedures performed within the first 90 days of life. Further investigation of the need for multiple reoperations, cost, and impact of surgeon and hospital experience is necessary to distinguish which treatment is more effective in the long term3
- Lee CC, Kano H, Yang HC, Xu Z, Yen CP, Chung WY, Pan DH, Lunsford LD, Sheehan JP. Initial Gamma Knife radiosurgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg. 2014 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24405068. [↩]
- McDonald CP, Chang V, McDonald M, Ramo N, Bey MJ, Bartol S. Three-dimensional motion analysis of the cervical spine for comparison of anterior cervical decompression and fusion versus artificial disc replacement in 17 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Dec 20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24359000. [↩]
- Jernigan SC, Berry JG, Graham DA, Goumnerova L. The comparative effectiveness of ventricular shunt placement versus endoscopic third ventriculostomy for initial treatment of hydrocephalus in infants. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24404970. [↩]
The March 2014 issue of Neurosurgery is now online and full-text access is available for print subscribers. Non-subscribers may access all article abstracts and the full-text of selected articles.
Tracking and Sustaining Improvement Initiatives: Leveraging Quality Dashboards to Lead Change in a Neurosurgical Department
Cada vez más, hospitales y médicos adquieren conocimiento de estrategias y herramientas para mejorar la calidad empresarial.
En el 2007 el departamento de Neurocirugía de la Universidad de California Los Angeles (UCLA) creó unos indicadores de calidad para ayudar a gestionar las medidas de proceso y resultados con la finalidad de mejorar el rendimiento clínico y la atención al paciente .
En el 2009 , la dirección del departamento y la dirección médica trabajó para alinear las prioridades de mejora de calidad de inversión. El contenido se ha rediseñado para incluir 3 áreas de prioridades: calidad y seguridad, satisfacción del paciente , eficiencia y uso de los recursos. A través del tiempo , la calidad de la neurocirugía ha sido reconocida por su claridad y su éxito en las estrategias de gestión.
Se describe la creación, el diseño y un resumen de la evolución del proceso, e ilustra la forma en que se puede utilizar como una herramienta poderosa de mejora y cambio.
También se discuten los posibles retos y orientaciones futuras de este conjunto de estrategias y llaves enfocadas a la administración y creación de conocimiento sobre el medio, a través del análisis de los datos existentes en un servicio de neurocirugía.
- Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) affects up to 1% of patients on oral anticoagulation per year, and is the most feared and devastating complication of this treatment. After such an event, it is unclear whether anticoagulant therapy should be resumed. Such a decision hinges upon the assessment of the competing risks of haematoma growth or recurrent ICH and thromboembolic events. ICH location and the risk for ischaemic cerebrovascular event seem to be the key factors that lead to risk/benefit balance of restarting anticoagulation after ICH. Patients with lobar haemorrhage or cerebral amyloid angiopathy remain at higher risk for anticoagulant-related ICH recurrence than thromboembolic events and, therefore would be best managed without anticoagulants. Patients with deep hemispheric ICH and a baseline risk of ischemic stroke >6.5% per year, that corresponds to CHADS2≥ 4 or CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 5, may receive net benefit from restarting anticoagulation. To date, a reasonable recommendation regarding time to resumption of anticoagulation therapy would be after 10 weeks. Available data regarding the role of magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the risks of both ICH and warfarin-related ICH do not support the use of this test for excluding anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation1.
- The current Brain Trauma Foundation recommendation for antiseizure prophylaxis is phenytoin during the first 7 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). 93 adult patients (43 [46%] No phenytoin group vs. 50 [54%] phenytoin group). The two groups were well matched. Contrary to expectation, more seizures occurred in the PP group as compared with the NP group; however, this did not reach significance (PP vs. NP, 2 [4%] vs. 1 [2.3%], p = 1). There was no significant difference in the two groups (PP vs. NP) as far as disposition are concerned, mortality caused by head injury (4 [8%] vs. 3 [7%], p = 1), discharge home (16 [32%] vs. 17 [40%], p = 0.7), and discharge to rehabilitation (30 [60%] vs. 23 [53%], p = 0.9). However, with PP, there was a significantly longer hospital stay (PP vs. NP, 36 vs. 25 days, p = 0.04) and significantly worse functional outcome at discharge based on Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score (PP vs. NP, 2.9 vs. 3.4, p < 0.01) and modified Rankin Scale score (2.3 ± 1.7 vs. 3.1 ± 1.5, p = 0.02).Phenytoin prophylaxis may not decrease early posttraumatic seizure and may suppress functional outcome after blunt TBI. These results need to be verified with randomized studies before recommending changes in clinical practice and do not apply to penetrating trauma2.
- Paciaroni M, Agnelli G. Should oral anticoagulants be restarted after warfarin-associated cerebral haemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation? Thromb Haemost. 2014 Jan;111(1):14-8. doi: 10.1160/TH13-08-0667. Epub 2013 Nov 21. PubMed PMID: 24258528. [↩]
- Bhullar IS, Johnson D, Paul JP, Kerwin AJ, Tepas JJ 3rd, Frykberg ER. More harm than good: antiseizure prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury does not decrease seizure rates but may inhibit functional recovery. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Jan;76(1):54-60; discussion 60-1. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182aafd15. PubMed PMID: 24368357. [↩]
In 661 patients with isolated tSAH. Only four patients (0.61%) underwent any sort of aggressive neurosurgical, medical, or endovascular intervention, regardless of GCS score. Most tSAH patients without additional systemic injury were discharged home (68%), including 53% of patients with a GCS score of 3-8. However, older patients were more likely to be discharged to a rehabilitation facility (p<0.01). There were six (1.7%) in-hospital deaths, and five patients of these patients were older than 80 years old.
Isolated tSAH, regardless of admission GCS score, is a less severe intracranial injury that is highly unlikely to require aggressive operative, medical, or endovascular intervention, and is unlikely to be associated with major neurologic morbidity or mortality, except perhaps in elderly patients. Based upon our findings, we argue that impaired consciousness in the setting of isolated tSAH should strongly compel a consideration of non-traumatic factors in the etiology of the altered neurological status1
- Lee JJ, Segar DJ, Asaad WF. Comprehensive Assessment of Isolated Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24224706. [↩]