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Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives (Institute for Research in Behavioral Neuroscience Series)

Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives (Institute for Research in Behavioral Neuroscience Series)

 

Product Description

Most individuals with brain damage experience a curtailment or loss of lifestyle without rehabilitation. Improved methods and appropriately timed medical interventions now make it possible for more individuals to survive brain insults and to be assisted by rehabilitation neuropsychologists in achieving renewed commitment to life. Damage to the brain — the organ of human emotions and cognition — reduces psychological functioning and realistic adaptation, and the patient and his/her family are often encapsulated in the time prior to injury. To regain part or most of the lifestyle lost, an honest, dedicated, and realistic approach is required. Neuropsychological rehabilitation can provide tools for this task, provided that the most comprehensive, elaborate and knowledge-based methods are integrated in the training, and provided that knowledge from many disciplines and from community environments and family is encompassed.

In the present book knowledge representing the development of neuropsychological rehabilitation during the past five years is collected from a conference titled “Progress in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.” The chapters are written by professionals who were invited to share their experiences from different areas within the field because of their expertise with processes involved in neuropsychological rehabilitation. After a historical review, the chapters follow a visible sequence from biology to neuropsychology and neuropharmacology. Experts discuss the most advanced medical knowledge of the effect of injury on states of the organism. The second part of the book is dedicated to the outcome and the economics of rehabilitation as well as plans for the future. Finally, a panel discussion addresses the overall concept: Is rehabilitation worthwhile and ethical? The reactions — influenced by the cross-cultural exchange of knowledge — shed light on the essence and practice of today’s neurorehabilitation.


Product Details

  • Published on: 2014-01-02
  • Released on: 2014-01-02
  • Format: Kindle eBook

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Enfermedad de Parkinson y pesticidas

La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) se caracteriza por la pérdida de neuronas de dopamina en la sustancia negra (SN). Aunque la etiología exacta es desconocida, la enfermedad de Parkinson esporádica puede ser resultado de la susceptibilidad genética y la interactuación con un factor ambiental. Los estudios epidemiológicos sugieren que la exposición a pesticidas está vinculada a un mayor riesgo de EP, pero no hay estudios que demuestren cambios en la SN con la exposición a pesticidas crónica en sujetos humanos.

En un estudio los cambios detectados por resonancia magnética pueden marcar “uno de los factores” que conduce a la EP, y ser la base del mayor riesgo de PD en los usuarios de plaguicidas que se encuentran en los estudios epidemiológicos. Otros estudios en humanos con la asistencia de estos marcadores de imagen pueden ser útiles en la comprensión de la etiología de la EP1

  1. Du G, Lewis MM, Sterling NW, Kong L, Chen H, Mailman RB, Huang X.
    Microstructural changes in the substantia nigra of asymptomatic agricultural
    workers. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Dec 12;41C:60-64. doi:
    10.1016/j.ntt.2013.12.001. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24334261. []

Delayed post-operative haemorrhage after carmustine wafer implantation

Implantation of carmustine wafers has been associated with increased operative site complications in some series, but post-operative haematoma is not routinely reported.

A retrospective audit of surgical site haematoma after tumour resection and insertion of carmustine wafers in two neurosurgical units in the UK (University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent, March 2003 – July 2012; Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton, October 2005 – January 2013) in 181 operations of 177 patients showed 8 (4.4%) patients. All presented in a delayed fashion on or after Day 2 post-operatively. In contrast, acute operative site haematoma was present in 4/491 (0.81%) of patients who underwent resection without gliadel wafer insertion.

In contrast to the expected timing of bleeding following intracranial tumour resection, all carmustine wafer patients who experienced haemorrhage presented in a delayed fashion on or after Day 2 post-operatively. The causative factors for universally delayed post-operative haematoma after carmustine wafer insertion are unclear and further studies are required to characterize this phenomenon1

  1. Shah RS, Homapour B, Casselden E, Barr JG, Grundy PL, Brydon HL. Delayed
    post-operative haemorrhage after carmustine wafer implantation: a case series
    from two UK centres. Br J Neurosurg. 2013 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed
    PMID: 24313309. []

Tumor del seno endodérmico

Es un tumor de células germinales.

Historia

El tumor del seno endodérmico gonadal o tumor de Yolk Sac (Tumor de saco vitelino) fue descrito por primera vez en el año 1959 por Teilum.

Anatomía patológica

Es un tumor maligno que histológicamente se caracteriza por la presencia de células germinales que adoptan un patrón de crecimiento típicamente reticular, túbulo-papilar, sólido y perivascular con formación de cuerpos de Schiller-Duval, que inmunohistoquímicamente son positivas para citoqueratina, alfafetoproteína y que presenta un mal pronóstico.

La localización más frecuente es a nivel gonadal, aunque se sabe que un 20% se localizan extragonadalmente, afectando a zonas como el área sacrococcígea, vagina, retroperitoneo, hígado, y mediastino.

Intracraneal

Son raros. Por lo general, se encuentran en la línea media en la región pineal o la región supraselar 1).

Otros sitios inusuales incluyen cerebelo, cuarto ventrículo,y lóbulo frontal y temporoparietal y médula espinal.

Se han descrito hasta el 2013 un total de 7 en fosa posterior 2).

Patogenia

La teoría propuesta actual se relaciona con la migración aberrante de las células germinales primordiales. A medida que estas células migran a los pliegues gonadales primitivos durante la embriogénesis, puede ocurrir la mala colocación en la línea media, dando lugar a tumores extragonadales 3).

1) Hoffman HJ, Otsubo H, Hendrick EB, Humphreys RP, Drake JM, Becker LE, et al. Intracranial germ-cell tumors in children. J Neurosurg. 1991;74:545–51.
2) Fan MC, Sun P, Lin DL, Yu Y, Yao WC, Feng YG, Tang LM. Primary endodermal sinus tumor in the posterior cranial fossa: clinical analysis of 7 cases. Chin Med Sci J. 2013 Dec;28(4):225-8. PubMed PMID: 24382224.
3) Kurisaka M, Moriki A, Mori K, Sonobe H. Primary yolk sac tumor in the spinal cord. Childs Nerv Syst. 1998;14:653–7.