Update: Geniculate neuralgia

J.Sales-Llopis

Neurosurgery Department, University General Hospital of Alicante, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region (FISABIO), Alicante, Spain

Geniculate neuralgia is a pain syndrome associated with the nervus intermedius.

Epidemiology

Fewer than 150 reported cases were published in English between 1932 and 2012 1).

Etiology

The etiology of the condition remains unknown 2).

Symptoms

The pain may also be of gradual onset and of a dull, persistent nature, with occasional sharp, stabbing pain like an electric shock, deep in the ear 3).

Some people have reported additional symptoms during pain attacks:

Salivation

Bitter taste

Tinnitus

Vertigo

Diagnosis

The clinical presentation varies. Non-neuralgic causes of otalgia should always be excluded by a thorough clinical examination, audiological assessment and radiological investigations before making a diagnosis of geniculate neuralgia 4).

Differential diagnosis

Due to the close anatomical proximity, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologies should be included in the differential diagnosis.

Easily confused with trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. However, nerves intermedius has its characteristic clinical syndroms to be diagnosed.

see Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

Treatment

The treatment has not been established, although it seems reasonable that the therapeutic approaches used in other more common craniofacial neuralgias, such as trigeminal neuralgia, should be effective.

Conservative medical treatment is always the first-line therapy.

Surgical treatment should be offered if medical treatment fails. The two commonest surgical options are transection of the nervus intermedius, and microvascular decompression of the nerve at the nerve root entry zone of the brainstem. However, extracranial intratemporal division of the cutaneous branches of the facial nerve may offer a safer and similarly effective treatment.

The response to medical treatment for this condition varies between individuals. The long-term outcomes of surgery remain unknown because of limited data 5).

Geniculate ganglion section

Rupa et al., postulate that geniculate ganglionectomy may be ineffective as the sole treatment for certain cases of geniculate neuralgia, and that nervus intermedius section may also be required to achieve a more complete deafferentation 6).

Case series

2015

Thirumala et al., analyzed preoperative and postoperative audiogram data and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) from 8 patients with GN who underwent MVD. Differences in pure tone audiometry > 10 dB at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz were calculated preoperatively and postoperatively for both the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides. Intraoperative monitoring records were analyzed and compared with the incidence of HFHL, which was defined as a change in pure tone audiometry > 10 dB at frequencies of 4 and 8 kHz.

High-frequency hearing loss occurred after MVD for TGN, GPN, or GN, and the greatest incidence occurred on the ipsilateral side. This hearing loss may be a result of drill-induced noise and/or transient loss of cerebrospinal fluid during the course of the procedure. Changes in intraoperative BAEP waveforms were not useful in predicting HFHL after MVD. Repeated postoperative audiological examinations may be useful in assessing the prognosis of HFHL 7).

2002

Excision of the nervus intermedius and/or of the geniculate ganglion by the middle cranial fossa approach without the production of facial paralysis, in any of 15 cases with geniculate neuralgia is reported. Use of these technique, sometimes in combination with selective section of the Vth cranial nerve, has been successful in relieving the pain of geniculate neuralgia 8).

In 2002 Pulec, review the long-term outcomes in 64 patients who were treated in this manner. Findings indicate that excision of the nervus intermedius and geniculate ganglion can be routinely performed without causing facial paralysis and that it is an effective definitive treatment for intractable geniculate neuralgia 9).

1997

After failing conservative treatment and after undergoing neurologic, otologic, and dental evaluations, 14 patients underwent 20 intracranial procedures consisting of retromastoid craniectomies with microvascular decompression of cranial nerves V, IX, and X with section of the nervus intermedius in most cases.

At operation, vascular compression of the nerves and nervus intermedius was found, which implicated vascular compression as an etiology of this disorder. Initially, 10 of 14 patients had an excellent outcome (71.5%), 3 experienced partial relief (21.5%), and there was 1 failure (7%). Ten patients were available for long-term (> 12 months) follow-up. Of these 10, 3 retained the excellent result (30%), 6 experienced partial relief (60%), and there was 1 failure (10%). Complications included one transient facial paresis, one facial numbness, one paresis of cranial nerves IX and X, one chemical meningitis, two cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and one superficial wound infection. Of those that fell from the excellent to partial category, this usually involved a return of atypical facial pain, but otalgia remained resolved.

Overall, good results (with excellent or partial relief) were found long term for 90% of patients in this series. The authors recommend microvascular decompression of cranial nerves V, IX, and X with nervus intermedius section for the treatment of geniculate neuralgia 10).

Case reports

2014

A case illustration was presented that demonstrates the novel brainstem functional imaging findings for geniculate neuralgia. A 39-year-old man presented with a history of left “deep” ear pain within his ear canal. He noted occasional pain on the left side of his face around the ear. He had been treated with neuropathic pain medications without relief. His wife described suicidal ideations discussed by her husband because of the intense pain.

The patient’s neurologic examination was normal, and otolaryngologic consultation revealed no underlying structural disorder. Anatomic imaging revealed a tortuous vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery complex with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery loop impinging on the root entry zone of the nervus intermedius-vestibulocochlear nerve complex and just inferior to the root entry zone of the facial nerve and a small anterior inferior cerebellar artery loop interposed between the cranial nerve VII-VIII complex and the hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerves. A left-sided retromastoid craniotomy was performed, and the nervus intermedius was transected. An arterial loop in contact with the lower cranial nerves at the level of the brainstem was mobilized with a polytetrafluoroethylene implant.

The patient indicated complete relief of his preoperative pain after surgery. He has remained pain-free with intact hearing and balance 11).

2007

Figueiredo et al., present a case report of a female patient who was successfully managed with pharmacological treatment 12).

1984

A patient had combined otalgia and intractable unilateral facial spasm, relieved by microsurgical vascular decompression of the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex in the cerebellopontine angle without section of the intermediate nerve. A dolicho-ectatic anterior inferior cerebellar artery compressed the seventh and eighth cranial nerves complex, suggesting that vascular compression of the intermediate nerve or of the sensory portion of the facial nerve may cause geniculate neuralgia. “Tic convulsif” seems to be a combination of geniculate neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. This combination could be due to vascular compression of the sensory and motor components of the facial nerve at their junction with the brainstem 13).


1) , 2) , 4) , 5) Tang IP, Freeman SR, Kontorinis G, Tang MY, Rutherford SA, King AT, Lloyd SK. Geniculate neuralgia: a systematic review. J Laryngol Otol. 2014 May;128(5):394-9. doi: 10.1017/S0022215114000802. Review. PubMed PMID: 24819337.
3) , 8) Pulec JL. Geniculate neuralgia: diagnosis and surgical management. Laryngoscope. 1976 Jul;86(7):955-64. PubMed PMID: 933690.
6) Rupa V, Weider DJ, Glasner S, Saunders RL. Geniculate ganglion: anatomic study with surgical implications. Am J Otol. 1992 Sep;13(5):470-3. PubMed PMID: 1443083.
7) Thirumala P, Meigh K, Dasyam N, Shankar P, Sarma KR, Sarma DR, Habeych M, Crammond D, Balzer J. The incidence of high-frequency hearing loss after microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, or geniculate neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2015 Dec;123(6):1500-6. doi: 10.3171/2014.10.JNS141101. PubMed PMID: 25932612.
9) Pulec JL. Geniculate neuralgia: long-term results of surgical treatment. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002 Jan;81(1):30-3. Review. PubMed PMID: 11816385.
10) Lovely TJ, Jannetta PJ. Surgical management of geniculate neuralgia. Am J Otol. 1997 Jul;18(4):512-7. PubMed PMID: 9233495.
11) Tubbs RS, Mosier KM, Cohen-Gadol AA. Geniculate neuralgia: clinical, radiologic, and intraoperative correlates. World Neurosurg. 2013 Dec;80(6):e353-7. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2012.11.053. PubMed PMID: 23178920.
12) Figueiredo R, Vazquez-Delgado E, Okeson JP, Gay-Escoda C. Nervus intermedius neuralgia: a case report. Cranio. 2007 Jul;25(3):213-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 17696039.
13) Yeh HS, Tew JM Jr. Tic convulsif, the combination of geniculate neuralgia and hemifacial spasm relieved by vascular decompression. Neurology. 1984 May;34(5):682-3. PubMed PMID: 6538661.

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